Inicio > Hosting > Tutorial: Como instalar un completo servidor de correo con Ubuntu

Tutorial: Como instalar un completo servidor de correo con Ubuntu


Una vez hemos instalado el sistema operativo que estara en nuestro servidor, procemos a la instalación de nuestro servidor DNS, en Ubuntu es tan facil como ejecutar el siguiente comando:

sudo apt-get install bind9

Una vez hemos instalado nuestro servidor DNS, vamos al archivo de configuracion y creamos la zona para nuestro dominio, en nuestro caso, por estar usando bind, ejecutamos el siguiente comando:

sudo nano /etc/bind/named.conf

y luego configuramos nuestra zona de la siguiente forma:

zone “midominio.com” {
type master;
file “/var/cache/bind/midominio.com.db”;
};

Y luego nos vamos al archivo que contiene nuestros respectivos registros para la nueva zone recien creada:

sudo nano /var/cache/bind/midominio.com.db

$TTL 86400
@ IN SOA ns0.midominio.com. root.midominio.com. (
; dmn [midominio.com] timestamp BEGIN.
200807193 ; Serial 19/07/08 #3
;dmn [midominio.com] timestamp END.
28800 ; Refresh 8h
7200 ; Retry
604800 ; Expire 7d
86400 ) ; Minimun: Id
;En el SOA no hace falta el TTL porque lo coge del $TTL
;
IN NS ns0.midominio.com.
IN MX 10 mail.midominio.com.
; Nos podemos ahorrar el midominio.com porque al no poner el punto final se añade el origen
midominio.com. IN A 201.x.x.x
ns0 IN A 201.x.x.x
mail IN A 201.x.x.x
www CNAME midominio.com. ;para que acepte http://www.midominio.com
ftp CNAME midominio.com.

Una vez hemos definido el archivo anterior, presionamos ctrl + o para guardar y ctrl + x para salir. Luego procedemos a reiniciar nuestro servidor demonio de DNS con el siguiente comando:

sudo service bind9 restart

Si todo ha ido bien tendremos ahora nuestro servidor DNS resolviendo correctamente nuestro dominio, para comprobarlo podemos hacerlo mediante el comando dig o verificar que no aparezcan errores en los logs del sistema.

La comprobacion con el comando dig se hace de la siguiente forma:

dig @201.x.x.x midominio.com ANY

Este comando debe de devolvernos todos los registros como los definimos en el archivo /var/cache/bind/midominio.com.db.

Hasta este punto ya tenemos configurado correctamente nuestro servidor DNS, caba aclarar que la ip 201.x.x.x se debe de sustituir por sus respectiva IP publica. En la próxima parte de este tutorial continuaremos con la instalacion de postfix, mysql, etc.

Luego de instalar nuestro servidor dns y tenerlo funcionando, vamos a instalar postfix y postfixadmin para poder comenzar a configurarlo de la siguiente forma:

sudo apt-get install postfix postfix-mysql mysql-server php5 php5-mysql php5-imap apache2
NOTA: cuando instalemos postfix se nos pedire que elijamos un tipo de configuración, nosotros seleccionaremos la que esta por defecto y luego la personalizaremos a nuestro gusto.
Una vez la instalación de los paquetes que hemos instalado en el paso anterior descargamos el postfixadmin para poder administrar nuestros dominios y cuentas virtuales. Entramos a la consola y ejecutamos el siguiente comando:
wget http://sourceforge.net/projects/postfixadmin/files/postfixadmin/postfixadmin-2.3rc7/postfixadmin_2.3rc7.tar.gz/download
Cuando la descarga termine, descomprimimos el archivo con el siguiente comando:

tar -xzvf postfixadmin_2.3rc7.tar.gz
Luego de descomprimir, copiamos el contenido de la carpeta a nuestro directorio /var/www/ de la siguiente forma: sudo cp -r postixadmin_2.3rc7 /var/www/postfixadmin y una vez finalizada la copia de la carpeta, procederemos a crear la base de datos que utilizaremos para almacenar las configuraciones de postfix y de los buzones.

CREATE DATABASE postfix;
CREATE USER ‘postfix’@’localhost’ IDENTIFIED BY ‘choose_a_password';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON `postfix` . * TO ‘postfix’@’localhost';
Para personalizar las lineas anteriores, cambiamos el usuario postfix por el que sea de nuestro gusto y ‘choose_a_password’ por la clave que nosotros queramos.

Una vez creado nuestro usuario y clave de la base de datos, necesitamos editar el archivo de configuración de nuestro postfixadmin de la siguiente forma:

sudo nano /var/www/postfixadmin/config.inc.php
Vamos a editar solamente algunos valores del archivo de configuración para dejarlos correctamente:

$CONF['configured'] = true;
$CONF['database_user'] = ‘postfix';
$CONF['database_password'] = ‘postfixadmin';
$CONF['database_name'] = ‘postfix';

Con esos parámetros de configuración adaptados a nuestras necesidades, entramos a nuestro navegador web y nos vamos a la siguiente url:

http://localhost/postfixadmin/setup.php

Una vez dentro de la url anterior, el script de php ejecuta una seria de comprobaciones y al final, nos pide una clave que tendremos que colocar en el archivo config.inc.php. Yo utilizare alpha, como clave para mi instalación en mi equipo. Luego de introducir el password, el script nos indica que debemos de editar una lista dentro de config.inc.php y dejarlo de la siguiente forma:

$CONF['setup_password'] = ’43b8e22909f84f6aa40d694327a631de:69d321a19d4e74eed5d6081403acb552cf8c1b24′;
Procedemos a editar el archivo de configuración y luego de eso volvemos al navegador para crear nuestro usuario administrador del postfixadmin.
En la creación del administrador, se nos solicitara el password de instalación, asi que es importante editar el archivo config.inc.php y luego crear el usuario administrador de los dominio.
Posteriormente a los pasos anteriores, podemos comenzar a crear dominios virtuales y buzones de correo, aunque es preferible terminar la configuración de postfix antes de hacer cualquiera de esas cosas.

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